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References


The following publications and presentations reflect the range of research that was used in preparing and modifying WinSLAMM and WinDETPOND. 

Many of the major research reports are readily available from the EPA web sites shown below. However, due to copyright restrictions, the books, chapters, papers, and presentations cannot be presented here, but most should be available from the publishers themselves.

If you cannot find what you need, please email us and we will send it to you.

Internet Sources of Information for Research Publications:


EPA ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch Recent Publications Site:
http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/news/main.htm

Many of the research reports in the following list were prepared for the EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (previously named the Storm and Combined Sewer Section). Their website, referenced above, contains several recent reports from the following list that have not yet been archived by the larger ORD Clariton site.
EPA’s Clarit Archive Site:http://www.epa.gov/clariton/clhtml/pubtitle.html

If the EPA report number is available, you can usually locate the report on-line at this site which contains more than 7,000 ORD reports. It is also possible to search for a report by subject, author, or key words.
International Internet based courses on Stormwater Modeling and Stormwater Management: http://www.eos.uoguelph.ca/webfiles/james/homepage/Teaching/661/wj661HomePage.html

References Describing Various Elements of the WinSLAMM Urban Stormwater Model


The following list contains references (published journal articles and conference proceedings, book chapters, and research reports) and presentations describing the Source Loading and Management Model (WinSLAMM) and most of its features and components.  Attempts are made to keep this list as up to date as possible, however, case studies using WinSLAMM are constantly being carried out, thus there may be additional references available elsewhere.

Basic Model Descriptions
Calibration Data used in WinSLAMM

Urban Hydrology and Source Contributions of Pollutants

Urban Hydrology
Sources of Stormwater Pollutants and Stormwater Treatability
Infiltration, Soil Amendments, Compacted Soil, and Groundwater Impacts
Movement of Solids in Sewerage
Control Practices in WinSLAMM
Swales and Sediment Transport in Grass Filters
Catchbasins and Inlet Devices
Stormwater Filtration and Critical Source Area Controls
Street Cleaning
Pollution Prevention Stormwater Controls
Detention Ponds
Urban Water System Design

Basic Model Descriptions

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. “The use of WinSLAMM to evaluate the benefits of low impact development.” Low Impact Development     Conference: Putting the LID on SWM. College Park, MD. Sept. 21-23, 2004.

Pitt, R. “Modeling stormwater controls in complex drainages.” Invited Feature Speaker. Designing Sites for Water Quality: Active Construction & Post-Construction BMPs. Michigan Water Environment Association. Battle Creek, MI. Dec 2 – 3, 2003

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. “SLAMM, the Source Loading and Management Model.” In: Wet-Weather Flow in the Urban Watershed     (Edited by Richard Field and Daniel Sullivan). CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp 103 – 139. 2002.

Myllyoja, R., H. Baroudi, R. Pitt, and J. Paluzzi. “Use of SLAMM in evaluating best management practices.” In: Models and Applications to Urban Water Systems, Vol. 9 (edited by W. James). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, 2001., pp. 131-141

Pitt, R. “Unique Features of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM).” In: Advances in Modeling the Management of Stormwater Impacts, Volume 6. (Edited by W. James). Computational Hydraulics International, Guelph, Ontario and Lewis Publishers/CRC Press. pp. 13 – 37. 1997.

Pitt, R. “SLAMM Stormwater Quality Model.” 1997 Alabama’s Water Environment Association and Air & Waste Management Association Alabama Chapter Joint Conference. Orange Beach, Alabama, April 1997

Pitt, R. “Unique Features of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM).” CHI’s Stormwater & Water Quality Management Modeling Conference. Toronto, Ontario. Feb. 1997

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. “Critical Source Area Controls in the SLAMM Water Quality Model.” A National Symposium: Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Watershed Developments on Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Quality. U.S. EPA and Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission. Chicago, Illinois, March 1996 (invited)

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. “Source loading and management model (SLAMM).” Seminar Publication: National Conference on Urban Runoff Management: Enhancing Urban Watershed Management at the Local, County, and State Levels. March 30 – April 2, 1993. Center for Environmental Research Information, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/625/R-95/003. Cincinnati. Ohio. pp. 225-243. April 1995.

Pitt, R. and J. McLean. “Stormwater, Baseflow, and Snowmelt Pollutant Contributions from an Industrial Area.”65th Annual Conference of the Water Pollution Control Federation, New Orleans, Louisiana, September 1992.

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. Characterization and Control of Storm Water Pollution; Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM): Volume I: Model Development and Summary.Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, March 1989.

Pitt, R. “General Urban Runoff Model for Water Quality Investigations.” ASCE 1994 Conference on Hydraulic Engineering. Buffalo, New York, August 1994.

Pitt, R. and J. Voohees. “The Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM).” National Conference on Urban Runoff Management. U.S. EPA, Chicago, Ill. March 1993 (invited).

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. SLAMM: Volume II: Model Documentation; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, March 1989.

Pitt, R. “The Incorporation of Urban Runoff Controls in the Wisconsin Priority Watershed Program.” In: Advanced Topics in Urban Runoff Research, (Edited by B. Urbonas and L.A. Roesner). Engineering Foundation and ASCE, New York. pp. 290-313. 1986

Pitt, R. and J. McLean. Humber River Pilot Watershed Project, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada. 483 pgs. June 1986.

Calibration Data used in WinSLAMM

Selbig, W.R., Bannerman, R., and Bowman, G., 2007, Improving the Accuracy of Sediment-Associated Constituent Concentrations in Whole Storm Water Samples by Wet Sieving, Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 36, no. 1, 7 p.

Maestre, A. and R. Pitt. “Observations from the National Stormwater Quality Database.” In: Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling, Monograph 14. (edited by W. James, K.N. Irvine, E.A. McBean, and R.E. Pitt). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, to be published in 2006.

Maestre, A., R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, and S. Chakraborti. “Stormwater quality descriptions using the three parameter lognormal distribution.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling.In: Models and More for Urban Water Systems, Monograph 13. (edited by W. James, K.N. Irvine, E.A. McBean, and R.E. Pitt). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, to be published in 2005.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho. “A National Stormwater Quality Database, part 1,” invited feature article. Watershed/Wet Weather Technical Bulletin, Water Environment Federation. To be published in 2005.

Pitt, R. and A. Maestre. “A National Stormwater Quality Database, part 2,” invited feature article. Watershed/Wet Weather Technical Bulletin, Water Environment Federation. To be published in 2005

Maestre, A. and R. Pitt. “Observations from the National Stormwater Quality Database.” Conference on Stormwater and Urban         Water Systems Modeling. Computational Hydraulics, Inc., Toronto. February 24 and 25, 2005.

Pitt, R. and A. Maestre. “Stormwater quality as described in the National Stormwater Quality Database.” 10th International             Conference on Urban Drainage, Copenhagen, Denmark. August 21-26, 2005.

Maestre, A., Pitt, R. E., and Derek Williamson. “Nonparametric statistical tests comparing first flush with composite samples         from the NPDES Phase 1 municipal stormwater monitoring data.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling. In:             Models and Applications to Urban Water Systems, Vol. 12 (edited by W. James). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, pp. 317 – 338. 2004

Pitt, R. E., A. Maestre, R. Morquecho, and Derek Williamson. “Collection and examination of a municipal separate storm sewer system database.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling. In: Models and Applications to Urban Water Systems, Vol. 12 (edited by W. James). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, pp. 257 – 294. 2004.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and the Center for Watershed Protection. The National Stormwater Quality Database. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water and Wastewater. EPA Cooperative Agreement. Dec. 2004.

Pitt, R. and A. Maestre. “The National Stormwater Quality Database.” Stormwater Management Research Symposium. University of Central Florida, Stormwater Management Academy. Orlando, FL, Oct. 12, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho. “Stormwater characteristics as contained in the nationwide MS4 stormwater phase 1 database.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho. “Nationwide MS4 stormwater phase 1 database.” Watershed 2004, Water Environment Foundation. Dearborn, MI. July 11 – 14, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Maestre, A., R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, and S. Chakraborti. “Stormwater quality descriptions using the three parameter lognormal distribution.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling Conference. Computational Hydraulics, Inc. Toronto. February 19-29, 2004.

Pitt, R. “The National Stormwater Quality Database.” Stormwater Management Symposium. Orlando, FL, Oct. 12, 2004.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho. “Nationwide MS4 stormwater phase 1 database.” Watershed 2004, Water Environment Foundation. Dearborn, MI. July 11 – 14, 2004.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho. “Stormwater characteristics as contained in the nationwide MS4 stormwater phase 1         database.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the     American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004

Evaluation of NPDES MS4 Stormwater Monitoring Data, with the Center for Watershed Protection (funded by the EPA Office of Wastewater Management 104(b)3 grant), 2001-2004.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre and R. Morquecho. “Compilation and review of nationwide MS4 stormwater quality data.” 76th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct. 2003 (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R. A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho.“Evaluation of NPDES Phase 1 Municipal Stormwater Monitoring Data.” Published proceedings of the National Conference on Urban Storm Water: Enhancing Programs at the Local Level. February 17-20, 2003. Sponsored by the US EPA and Chicago Botanic Garden. Chicago. 2003.

Maestre, A., Pitt, R. E., and R. Morquecho. “Nonparametric statistical tests comparing first flush with composite samples from     the NPDES Phase 1 municipal stormwater monitoring data.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling Conference.         Computational Hydraulics, Inc. Toronto, Canada, Feb. 2003.

Pitt, R. E., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho.“Collection and examination of a municipal separate storm sewer system database.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling. Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling Conference. Computational Hydraulics, Inc. Toronto, Canada, Feb. 2003.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre and R. Morquecho. “Compilation and review of nationwide MS4 stormwater quality data.” 76th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct 11 – 15, 2003.

Pitt, R., A. Maestre, and R. Morquecho. Evaluation of NPDES Phase 1 Municipal Stormwater Monitoring Data. Urban Stormwater: Enhancing Programs at the Local Level. Chicago Botanic Garden and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chicago, Illinois. February 17-20, 2003.

Waschbusch, R.J., Selbig, W.R, and Bannerman, R.T., 1999, Sources of phosphorus in stormwater and street dirt from two         urban residential basins in Madison, Wisconsin, 1994-95: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report         99-4021, 47 p.

Waschbusch, R.J., Bannerman, R.T., Greb, S.R., 1997, Yields of selected constituents in street runoff in Madison Wisconsin, 1994-95: Manuscript in preparation

Walker, J.F., Graczyk, D.J., Corsi, S.R., Owens, D.W., and Wierl, J.A., 1995, Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin; land-use and best-management-practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-320, 21 p. 

Waschbusch, R.J., 1995, Stormwater-runoff data in Madison, Wisconsin, 1993-94: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-733, 33 p. 

Montgomery, R.J. and Voorhees J.G. 1991, SLAMM model calibration and example applications project: 6 for U.S.                         Environmental Protection Agency Region V: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Grant number C9995007-01                 [variously paged].

Urban Hydrology and Source Contributions of Pollutants

Urban Hydrology

Corsi, S.R., Graczyk, D.J., Owens, D.W., and Bannerman, R.T., 1997, Unit-area loads of suspended sediment, suspended solids, and total phosphorus from small watersheds in Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 195–97, 4 p.

Pitt, R. and S.R. Durrans. Drainage of Water from Pavement Structures (funded by the U.S. Transportation Research Board and Alabama Department of Transportation), 1993-1994.

Pitt, R. “Small storm hydrology and why it is important for the design of stormwater control practices.” In: Advances in Modeling the Management of Stormwater Impacts, Volume 7. (Edited by W. James). Computational Hydraulics International, Guelph, Ontario and Lewis Publishers/CRC Press. 1999.

Pitt, R. “Small Storm Hydrology - The Key in Identifying Sources of Stormwater Pollutants.” 26th Annual Water Resources Conference. University of Minnesota. October 1993 (invited).

Pitt, R. “Small storm hydrology: Its importance for the design of stormwater control.” 5th New York Stormwater Management Conference and Trade Exposition. Rochester, NY. Feb., 1999.

Pitt, R. “Small Storm Hydrology’s Impact on the Design of Stormwater Control Practices.” 34th Annual American Water Resources Association Conference: Applications of Water Use Information. Point Clear, AL. November 1998.

Pitt, R. and S.R. Durrans. Drainage of Water from Pavement Structures. Alabama Dept. of Transportation. 253 pgs. September 1995.

Pitt, R. Small Storm Urban Flow and Particulate Washoff Contributions to Outfall Discharges, Ph.D. Dissertation, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, November 1987.

Pitt, R. “Water quality and hydrology interactions.” California Stormwater Quality Task Force, Sacramento, CA. June 2002.

Sources of Stormwater Pollutants and Stormwater Treatability

Bannerman, R., G. Fries, and J. Horwatich. 2003. Source area and regional storm water treatment practices: options for                 achieving Phase II retrofit requirements in Wisconsin: Manuscript in preparation.

Bannerman, R.T., Baun, K., Bohn, M., Hughes, P.E., and Graczyk, D.J., 1983, Evaluation of urban nonpoint source pollution         management in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin¾Volume 1 for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V: Wisconsin         Department of Natural Resources Publication PB 84-114164 [variously paged].

Bannerman, R.T., Dodds, R.B., Owens, D.W, Hughes, P.E., 1992, Source of pollutants in Wisconsin Stormwater: 1 for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region V: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Grant number C9995007-01 [variously paged].

Bannerman, R.T., Owens, D.W., Dodds, R.B., and Hornewer, N.J., 1993, Sources of pollutants in Wisconsin stormwater: Water Science Technology, v. 28, no. 3-5, p. 241-259.

Bannerman, R.T., Legg, A.D.., and Greb, S.R.., 1996, Quality of Wisconsin stormwater 1989—94:  U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-458, 26 p.

Burton, G.A., Jr. and. Pitt R.E., 2002, Stormwater effects handbook—A toolbox for watershed managers, scientists, and engineers: Boca Raton, Fla., Lewis Publishers, 929 p.

Garn, H.S., 2002, Effects of lawn fertilizer on nutrient concentration in runoff from lakeshore lawns, Lauderdale Lakes, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02–4130, 6 p.

Garn, H.S.; Robertson, D.M; Rose, W.J.; Goddard, G.L.; and Horwatich J.A., 2006, Water Quality, Hydrology, and Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Nagawicka Lake, a Calcareous Lake in Waukesha County, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5273, 53 p. 

Graczyk, D.G., Hunt, R.J., Greb, S.R., Buchwald, C.A. and Krohelski, J.T., 2003, Hydrology, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient yields in nearshore areas of four lakes in northern Wisconsin, 1999-2001: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03–4144, 64 p.

Legg, A.D.., Bannerman, R.T., and Panuska, J., 1996, Variation in the relation of rainfall to runoff from residential lawns in Madison, Wisconsin, July and August 1995:  U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 96-4196, 11 p.

Pitt, R. Effects, Sources and Treatment of Stormwater Toxicants (funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), 1992-1997.

Pitt, R. Sources and Treatment of Stormwater Toxicants (funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development), 1989-1992.

Pitt, R., R. Bannerman, S. Clark, and D. Williamson. “Sources of pollutants in urban areas (Part 1) – Older monitoring projects.” In: Models and More for Urban Water Systems, Monograph 13. (edited by W. James, K.N. Irvine, E.A. McBean, and R.E. Pitt). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, to be published in 2005.

Pitt, R., R. Bannerman, S. Clark, and D. Williamson. “Sources of pollutants in urban areas (Part 2) – Recent sheetflow monitoring results.” In: Models and More for Urban Water Systems, Monograph 13. (edited by W. James, K.N. Irvine, E.A. McBean, and R.E. Pitt). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, to be published in 2005.

Pitt, R., D. Williamson, and J. Voorhees. “Review of historical street dust and dirt accumulation and washoff data.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling.In: Models and More for Urban Water Systems, Monograph 13. (edited by W. James, K.N. Irvine, E.A. McBean, and R.E. Pitt). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, to be published in 2005.

Pitt, R. “The Control of Toxicants at Critical Source Areas.” In: Effects of Watershed Development and Management on Aquatic Ecosystems. (Edited by L.A. Roesner). Engineering Foundation and ASCE. New York. pp. 70-92. 1997.

Morquecho, R. and R. Pitt. “Chemical forms and effects of heavy metals in stormwater.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005. (conference CD-ROM).

Shergill, S. and R. Pitt. “Quantification of Escherichia coli and enterococci levels in wet weather and dry weather flows.” 77th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. New Orleans, LA. Oct 4 – 7, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R., R. Field, M. Lalor, and M. Brown. “Urban Stormwater Toxic Pollutants: Assessment, Sources and Treatability.” Water Environment Research. Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 260-275. May/June 1995. Discussion and closure in Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 953-955. July/August 1996.

Pitt, R., M. Lalor, R. Field, and M. Brown. “The Investigation of Source Area Controls for the Treatment of Urban Stormwater Toxicants.” International Association on Water Quality. Water Science and Technology. Vol. 28, no. 3-5, pp. 271-282. September/October 1993.

Barron, P. and R. Pitt. “Characterization of PAHs in Urban Runoff Source Area Sheetflows.” 63rd Annual Conference of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C., October 1990.

Barron, P. and R. Pitt. “Sources and Reduction of Toxicants in Urban Runoff.”62nd Annual Conference of the Water Pollution Control Federation, San Francisco, CA, October 1989.

Morquecho, R. and R. Pitt. “Chemical forms and effects of heavy metals in stormwater.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005.

Morquecho, R. and R. Pitt. “Stormwater heavy metal particulate associations.” 76th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct 11 – 15, 2003.

Pitt, R. “Urban and Industrial Stormwater Runoff Toxicity.”Ninth International Symposium on Lake and Reservoir Management, North American Lake Management Society, Austin, Texas, November 1989.

Pitt, R. and G. Amy. Toxic Materials Analyses of Street Surface Contaminants, EPA-R2-73-283, U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Washington, D.C. 134 pgs. 1973.

Pitt, R. and M. Bozeman. Sources of Urban Runoff Pollution and Its Effects on an Urban Creek, EPA-600/S2-82-090, PB 83-111-021. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. 142 pgs. 1982.

Pitt, R. and R. Field. “The Treatability of Urban Runoff Toxicants.” International Conference on Integrated Stormwater Management, Singapore, July 1991 (invited).

Pitt, R. and R. Field. “The Treatability of Urban Stormwater Toxicants.” International Conference on Urban Drainage and New Technologies, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, June 1991 (invited).

Pitt, R. Urban Bacteria Sources and Control in the Lower Rideau River Watershed, Ottawa, Ontario, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, ISBN 0-7743-8487-5. 165 pgs. 1983.

Pitt, R., A. Ayyoubi, and R. Field.“The Treatability of Urban Stormwater Toxicants.” First International Conference on Diffuse (Nonpoint) Pollution. International Association on Water Quality. Chicago. Ill. September 1993 (invited).

Pitt, R., A. Ayyoubi, and R. Field. “The Treatability of Urban Stormwater Toxicants.” 17th Annual Hazardous Waste Research Symposium: Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste.U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1991.

Pitt, R., D. Williamson, and J. Voorhees. “Review of historical street dust and dirt accumulation and washoff data.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling Conference. Computational Hydraulics, Inc. Toronto. February 19-29, 2004.

Pitt, R., D. Williamson, and R. Bannerman. “Sources of pollutants in urban areas.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling Conference. Computational Hydraulics, Inc. Toronto. February 19-29, 2004.

Pitt, R., P. Barron, and R, Field. “Hazardous and Toxic Wastes Associated with Urban Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflows.”16th Annual Hazardous Waste Research Symposium: Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste.U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1990.

Pitt, R., P. Barron, and R. Field. “Sources and Reduction of Toxicants in Storm Induced Discharges.”International Symposium - Urban Planning and Stormwater Management, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 1990 (invited).

Steuer, J.J., Selbig, W.R., Hornewer, N.J., and Prey, J., 1997, Sources of contamination in an urban basin in Marquette, Michigan, and an analysis of concentrations, loads, and data quality: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4242, 25 p.

Steuer, J.J., Selbig, W.R., Hornewer, N.J., and Prey, J., 1997, Superior, Wisconsin, 1996 water-quality data summary: Written Comm. to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Steuer, J.J., Selbig, W.R., and Hornewer, N.J., 1996, Contaminant concentration in stormwater from eight Lake Superior basin cities, 1993-94: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-122, 16 p. 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1982, Results of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program—Volume II, Appendices: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [variously paginated]. [Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 (http://www.ntis.gov), item PB84–185560.]

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1983, Results of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, Volume 1–final report, Water Planning Division: Washington, D.C., National Technical Information Service PB84-185552 [variously paged].

Shergill, S. and R. Pitt. “Quantification of Escherichia coli and enterococci levels in wet weather and dry weather flows.” 77th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. New Orleans, LA. Oct 4 – 7, 2004.

Infiltration, Soil Amendments, Compacted Soil, and Groundwater Impacts

Pitt, R., with contributions from S. Clark, R. Field, and K. Parmer. Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater. ISBN 1-57504-015-8. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. 1996. 219 pages.

NRC (National Research Council), Groundwater Recharge Committee, National Academy of Science. Ground Water Recharge using Waters of Impaired Quality. ISBN 0-309-05142-8. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1994. 284 pages.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and K. Parmer. Potential Groundwater Contamination from Intentional and Non-Intentional Stormwater Infiltration. ISBN 0-7881-1059-4. Diane Press. Upland, Pennsylvania. 1994. 120 pages.

Pitt, R. E. Shen-En Chen, S. Clark, J. Lantrip, and C.K. Ong. “Infiltration through compacted urban soils and effects on biofiltration design.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling. In: Models and Applications to Urban Water Systems, Vol. 11 (edited by W. James). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, pp. 217 – 252. 2003.

Pitt, R. and J. Lantrip. “Infiltration through disturbed urban soils.” In: Advances in Modeling the Management of Stormwater Impacts, Volume 8. (Edited by W. James). Computational Hydraulics International, Guelph, Ontario. 2000. pp. 1 –22.

Parmer, K., R. Pitt, R. Field, and S. Clark. “Stormwater Infiltration Effects on Groundwater.” In: Stormwater NPDES Related Monitoring Needs (Edited by H.C. Torno). Engineering Foundation and ASCE. pp. 617-630. 1995.

Pitt, R., S. Chen, S. Clark, and J. Lantrip. “Soil structure effects associated with urbanization and the benefits of soil amendments.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005. (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R. and S. Chen. “Land development effects on soil structure and the use of soil amendments.” Low Impact Development Conference: Putting the LID on SWM. College Park, MD. Sept. 21-23, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R, S. Chen, and S. Clark. “Compacted urban soils effects on infiltration and bioretention stormwater control designs.” Global Solutions for Urban Drainage; 9IUCD. CD-ROM Proceedings of the 9th International Urban Drainage Conference, edited by E.W. Strecker and W.C. Huber., Sept 8-13, 2002, Portland, OR. Sponsored by the ASCE, Reston, VA, and the International Water Association, London. 2002.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and R. Field. “Groundwater contamination potential from stormwater infiltration practices.” Urban Water. Vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 217-236. September 1999.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and K. Parmer. “Potential Groundwater Contamination from Intentional and Nonintentional Stormwater Infiltration.” Journal ofAlabama’s Water Environment Association. Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 8-11. Summer 1994.

Lantrip, J. and R. Pitt. “Infiltration of stormwater through disturbed urban soils.” 34th Annual American Water Resources Association Conference: Applications of Water Use Information. Point Clear, AL. November 1998.

Parmer, K., R. Pitt, R. Field, and S. Clark. “Groundwater Impacts from Stormwater Infiltration.” (poster) Engineering Foundation Conference on: Stormwater NPDES Related Needs. Mt. Crested Butte, CO, August 1994.

Pitt, R. and S. Chen. “Land development effects on soil structure and the use of soil amendments.” Low Impact Development Conference: Putting the LID on SWM. College Park, MD. Sept. 21-23, 2004.

Pitt, R. C. Shen-En Chen, S. Clark, J. Lantrip, and C.K. Ong. “Infiltration through compacted urban soils and effects on biofiltration design.” Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling. Computational Hydraulics, Inc. Toronto, Canada, Feb. 2002.

Pitt, R., and J. Lantrip. “The effects of urbanization on soil infiltration characteristics.” AIH’s Conference on Atmospheric, Surface and Subsurface Hydrology Interactions. Research Triangle Park, NC, November 2000.

Pitt, R., J. Lantrip, and T.P. O’Connor. “Infiltration through disturbed urban soils.” ASCE’s 2000 Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning & Management. Minneapolis, MN. July 2000.

Pitt, R., J. Lantrip, R. Harrison, C. Henry, and D. Hue. Infiltration through Disturbed Urban Soils and Compost-Amended Soil Effects on Runoff Quality and Quantity. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory. EPA 600/R-00/016. Cincinnati, Ohio. 231 pgs. December 1999.

Pitt, R., R. Harrison, C.L. Henry, D. Xue, and T. O’Connor. “Enhanced infiltration performance of disturbed urban soils using compost amendments.” Water Environment Federation 72nd Annual Conference & Exposition. New Orleans. October 1999.

Pitt, R., S. Chen, and S. Clark. “Compacted urban soils effects on infiltration and bioretention stormwater control designs.” 9th International Conference on Urban Drainage. IAHR, IWA, EWRI, and ASCE. Portland, Oregon, September 8-13, 2002.

Pitt, R., S. Chen, S. Clark, and C.K. Ong. “Urbanization factors affecting infiltration.” American Water Resources Association Summer Specialty Conference: Ground Water/Surface Water Interactions. Keystone, Colorado, July 1-3, 2002.

Pitt, R., S. Chen, S. Clark, and J. Lantrip. “Soil structure effects associated with urbanization and the benefits of soil amendments.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and K. Parmer. Protection of Groundwater from Intentional and Nonintentional Stormwater Infiltration. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/SR-94/051. PB94-165354AS, Storm and Combined Sewer Program, Cincinnati, Ohio. 187 pgs. May 1994.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and R. Field. “Groundwater contamination potential from stormwater infiltration.” American Water Resources Association Summer Specialty Conference: Ground Water/Surface Water Interactions. Keystone, Colorado, July 1-3, 2002.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and R. Field. “Groundwater Contamination Risk due to Stormwater Infiltration.” 34th Annual American Water Resources Association Conference: Applications of Water Use Information. Point Clear, AL. November 1998.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and R. Field. “Potential groundwater contamination associated with stormwater infiltration.” AIH’s Conference on Atmospheric, Surface and Subsurface Hydrology Interactions. Research Triangle Park, NC, November 2000.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and R. Field. “Risk of Groundwater Contamination.” (poster presentation). UDM'98: Developments in Urban Drainage Modelling. London. Sept. 21-24, 1998.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, K. Parmer, and R. Field. “Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater Infiltration.” 21st Annual RREL Research Symposium. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-95/012. Cincinnati, Ohio. pp. 222-230. April 1995.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, K. Parmer, and R. Field. “Potential Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater Infiltration.” ASCE Joint Conferences: First International Conference on Water Resources Engineering, International Groundwater Management Symposium, Watershed Management Symposium, and Texas Water ’95. San Antonio. Texas. August 1995.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, K. Parmer, and R. Field. “Potential Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater Infiltration.” 67th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference. Chicago, IL. October 1994.

Movement of Solids in Sewerage

Ashley, R., M. Verbanck, J-L Bertrand-Krajewski, T. Hvitved-Jacobsen, C. Nalluri, G. Perrusquia, R. Pitt, E. Ristenpart, and A. Saul. “Solids in Sewers – The State of the Art.” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage. Hannover, Germany. (edited by F. Sieker and H-R. Verworn). pp. 1771 - 1776. IAHR/IAWQ. London. 1996.

Ashley, R., M. Verbanck, J-L Bertrand-Krajewski, T. Hvitved-Jacobsen, C. Nalluri, G. Perrusquia, R. Pitt, E. Ristenpart, and A. Saul. “Solids in Sewers - the State of the Art.” (poster). Seventh International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage. Hannover, Germany. Sept. 1996.

Control Practices in WinSLAMM

Swales and Sediment Transport in Grass Filters

Pitt, R. Alabama Highway Drainage Conservation Design Practices (funded by the University Transportation Center for Alabama), 2004.

Nara, Y., R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, and J. Kirby. “The use of grass swales as a stormwater control.” In: Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling, Monograph 14. (edited by W. James, K.N. Irvine, E.A. McBean, and R.E. Pitt). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, to be published in 2006.

Kirby, J.T., S.R. Durrans, R. Pitt, and P.D. Johnson. “Hydraulic resistance in grass swales designed for small flow conveyance.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 1, Jan. 2005.

Nara, Y., R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, and J. Kirby. “The use of grass swales as a stormwater control.” Conference on Stormwater and Urban Water Systems Modeling. Computational Hydraulics, Inc., Toronto. February 24 and 25, 2005.

Pitt, R. “Innovative metal control using grass swales and stormwater filters.” 3rd South Pacific Conference on Stormwater. Auckland Regional Council, New Zealand. May 14-16, 2003.

Catchbasins and Inlet Devices

Horwatich J.A., Bannerman R.T., and Robert Pearson Effectiveness of a Hydrodynamic Settling Device and a Stormwater Filtration Device in Milwaukee, Wisconsin 2002–04: Manuscript in preparation.

Horwatich J.A., Bannerman R.T., and Robert Pearson Effectiveness of a Hydrodynamic Settling Device and a Stormwater Filtration Device in Milwaukee, Wisconsin 2002–04: Manuscript in preparation.

Horwatich, J.A., and Bannerman R.T., Efficiency of a Hydrodynamic Settling Device in Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-06: Manuscript in preparation.

Pitt, R. Evaluation of Inlet Treatment Device, an EPA SBIR Phase 2 Demonstration Project, with US Infrastructure, Edison, NJ. (funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency), 2004-2005.

Pitt, R. and R. Field. “Catchbasins and inserts for the control of gross solids and conventional stormwater pollutants.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Clark, S., R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Stormwater Treatment Using Inlet Devices, Filter Media, and Filter Fabrics.” (poster) Engineering Foundation Conference on: Stormwater NPDES Related Needs. Mt. Crested Butte, CO, August 1994.

Pitt, R. and R. Field. “Catchbasins and inserts for the control of gross solids and conventional stormwater pollutants.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004.

Waschbusch, R.J., 1999, Evaluation of the effectiveness of urban stormwater treatment unit in Madison, Wisconsin, 1996-97: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4195, 49 p.

Pitt. R. and R. Field. “An Evaluation of Storm Drainage Inlet Devices for Stormwater Quality Treatment.” Water Environment Federation 71st Annual Conference & Exposition, WEFTEC Technology Forum. Orlando, FL. October 1998.

Stormwater Filtration and Critical Source Area Controls

Clark, S.E., R. Pitt, P.D. Johnson, S. Gill, and M. Pratap. “Media filtration to remove solids and associated pollutants from stormwater runoff.” Best Management Practices (BMP) Technology Symposium: Current and Future Directions, American Society of Civil Engineers. To be published Spring 2005.


Corsi, S.R., Greb, S.R., Bannerman, R.T., and Pitt, R.E., 1999, Evaluation of the multi-chambered treatment train, a retrofit water-quality management practice: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-270, 24 p.

Horwatich, J.A., and Bannerman R.T., Use of a Stormwater Filtration Device for Reducing Contaminants in Runoff from a Parking Lot in Madison, Wisconsin, 2005–07: Manuscript in preparation.

Horwatich, J.A., Corsi, R.S., Bannerman, R.T., 2004, Effectiveness of a pressurized stormwater filtration system in Green Bay, Wisconsin—A study for the Environmental Technology Verification Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5222, p 19

Pitt, R. and S. Clark. “Emerging stormwater controls for critical source areas.” In: Wet-Weather Flow in the Urban Watershed (Edited by Richard Field and Daniel Sullivan). CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp 575 – 613. 2002.

Robertson, B., R. Pitt, A. Ayyoubi, and R. Field. “A Multi-Chambered Stormwater Treatment Train.” In: Stormwater NPDES Related Monitoring Needs (Edited by H.C. Torno). Engineering Foundation and ASCE. pp. 631-640. 1995.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Stormwater Treatment: Inlet Devices and Filtration.” In: Stormwater NPDES Related Monitoring Needs (Edited by H.C. Torno). Engineering Foundation and ASCE. pp. 641-650. 1995.

Pitt, R. “Source Waters and their Treatment.” In: Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality (Committee on Groundwater Recharge). National Research Council, National Academy of Science, National Academy Press. Washington, D.C., pp. 35-96. 1994.

Pitt, R., A. Ayyoubi, R. Field and M. O’Shea. “The Treatability of Urban Runoff Toxicants.” In:International Perspectives on Integrated Stormwater Management (Edited by R. Field, M. O’Shea, and K.K. Chin). Lewis Publishers, pp. 121-148. 1992.

Pitt, R. and R. Field. “The Treatability of Urban Stormwater Toxicants.” In: New Technologies in Urban Drainage, Elsevier Applied Science. London. 1991.

Pratap, M., U. Khambhammettu, S. Clark, and R. Pitt. “Stormwater treatment using upflow filters.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005. (conference CD-ROM).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005a, Environmental Technology Verification Report— Stormwater management StormFilter using perlite filter media: 05/23/WQPC-WWF, EPA 600/R–05/137, 56 p., accessed on [give a date] at http://www.nsf.org/business/water_quality_protection_center/pdf/StormFilter_Griffin_Report.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, July 2004b, Environmental Technology Verification Report—Stormwater source area treatment device—The stormwater management StormFilter using ZPG filter media: 04/17/WQPC-WWF, EPA/600/R-04/125, 65 p., accessed on [give a date] at http://www.nsf.org/business/water_quality_protection_center/pdf/SMI_Riverwalk_Verification_Report_Final.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004a, Environmental Technology Verification Report¾Stormwater source
area treatment device-Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA/600/R-04/084 [variously paged].

Pratap, M., S. Clark, R. Pitt, and P. Johnson. “WERF: Evaluation of upflow filtration for stormwater treatment at critical source areas.” 77th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. New Orleans, LA. Oct 4 – 7, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Pratap, M.; Clark, S.E.; Pitt, R. “Upflow filters for stormwater treatment at critical source areas: I. Optimization.” Submitted to Water Environment Research, August 2004.

Pratap, M.; Clark, S.E.; Pitt, R. “Upflow filters for stormwater treatment at critical source areas: II. Media comparison.” Submitted to Water Environment Research, August 2004.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, P.D. Johnson, R. Morquecho, S. Gill, and M. Pratap. “High level treatment of stormwater heavy metals.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Pitt, R., S. Clark, P.D. Johnson, R. Morquecho, and D. Williamson. “Treatability of stormwater heavy metals; or breaking the irreducible concentration barrier.” Watershed 2004, Water Environment Foundation. Dearborn, MI. July 11 – 14, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Morquecho, R. and R. Pitt. “Stormwater heavy metal particulate associations.” 76th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct. 2003 (conference CD-ROM).

Johnson, P.D., S. Clark, R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, M. Urrutia, S. Gill, and J. Kirby. “Metals removal technologies for stormwater.” Published proceedings of the 9th Industrial Wastes Technical Conference. Austin, TX. Water Environment Foundation. April 2003.

Pitt, R. “Stormwater treatment at critical source areas using the multi-chambered treatment train (MCTT).” The 2002 Borchardt Conference, A Seminar on Advancements in Water and Wastewater. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Feb. 2002.

Clark, S., P. Brown, and R. Pitt. “Wastewater treatment using low-cost adsorbents and waste materials.”2000 WEF and Purdue University Industrial Wastes Technical Conference CD-ROM. St. Louis, MO. May 2000.

Clark, S. and R. Pitt. Stormwater Treatment at Critical Areas, Vol. 3: Evaluation of Filtration Media for Stormwater Treatment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory. EPA/600/R-00/016, Cincinnati, Ohio. 442 pgs. October 1999.

Clark, S., J. Easton,R. Pitt. “Breakthrough Tests of Stormwater Filtration Media.” 1997 Alabama’s Water Environment Association and Air & Waste Management Association Alabama Chapter Joint Conference. Orange Beach, Alabama, April 1997.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, and A. Balakrishnan. “Stormwater filters: Upflow vs. downflow.” (poster). Engineering Foundation and the American Society of Civil Engineers Conference on Information & Monitoring Needs for Evaluating the Mitigating Effects of BMPs. Snowmass, CO, August 2001.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, and P. Brown. “Effect of anaerobiosis on filter media pollutant retention.” (poster). Engineering Foundation and the American Society of Civil Engineers Conference on Information & Monitoring Needs for Evaluating the Mitigating Effects of BMPs. Snowmass, CO, August 2001.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, and P. Brown. “Stormwater filter performance under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.” (poster). Water Environmental Federation, WEFTEC’01. Atlanta, GA, Oct. 2001.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, J. Easton, O. Mirov, K. Parmer, and R. Field. “Pollutant Removal Capacity of Stormwater Filtration Media – Break through Tests.” (poster) Water Environment Federation 70th Annual Conference & Exposition. Chicago. October 1997.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, P. Brown, and R. Field. “Stormwater runoff filtration prior to groundwater recharge.” 34th Annual American Water Resources Association Conference: Applications of Water Use Information. Point Clear, AL. November 1998.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, P. Brown, and R. Field. “Treatment by filtration of stormwater runoff prior to groundwater recharge.” Water Environment Federation 71st Annual Conference & Exposition. Orlando. October 1998.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, R. Field, P. Brown, and R. Schulze. “Urban Runoff Filtration for Critical Source Areas.” WEF Advances in Urban Wet Weather Wet Weather Pollution Reduction Specialty Conference. Cleveland, OH. June 1998.

Clark, S.E., P. Johnson, R. Pitt, S. Gill, and M. Pratap. “Filtration for metals removal from stormwater.”10th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Copenhagen, Denmark. August 21-26, 2005.

Corsi, S.R., S.R. Greb, R.T. Bannerman, and R.E. Pitt. Evaluation of the Multi-Chambered Treatment Train, a Retrofit Water Quality Management Practice. U.S. Geological Survey. Open-File Report 99-270. Middleton, Wisconsin. 24 pgs. 1999.

Johnson, P.D., R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, M. Urrutia, and S. Clark. Metals Removal Technologies for Urban Stormwater. Water Environment Research Foundation. WERF 97-IRM-2. ISBN: 1-94339-682-3. Alexandria, VA. 701 pgs. Oct. 2003.

Johnson, P.D., S. Clark, R. Pitt, S.R. Durrans, M. Urrutia, S. Gill, and J. Kirby. “Metals removal technologies for stormwater.” 9th Industrial Wastes Technical Conference. Austin, TX. Water Environment Foundation. April 16, 2003.

Pitt, R. “Managing Critical Source Areas of Toxicants at the Watershed Level.” Effects of Watershed Development and Management on Aquatic Ecosystems. Engineering Foundation and ASCE. Snowbird, Utah. August 1996 (invited).

Pitt, R. “Stormwater treatment at critical source areas using the multi-chambered treatment train (MCTT).” The 2002 Borchardt Conference, A Seminar on Advancements in Water and Wastewater. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Feb. 2002.

Pitt, R. and B. Robertson. “A Multi-Chambered Stormwater Treatment Train for the Treatment of Stormwater.” 21st Annual RREL Research Symposium. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-95/012. Cincinnati, Ohio. pp. 217-221. April 1995.

Pitt, R. and B. Robertson. “Treatment of Stormwater from Critical Source Areas Using a Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT).” 67th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference. Chicago, IL. October 1994.

Pitt, R., B. Robertson, and R. Field. “Innovative Multi-Chambered Stormwater Control Device for Critical Source Areas.” WEF Advances in Urban Wet Weather Wet Weather Pollution Reduction Specialty Conference. Cleveland, OH. June 1998.

Pitt, R., B. Robertson, P. Barron, A. Ayyoubi, and S. Clark. Stormwater Treatment at Critical Areas:The Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Wet Weather Flow Management Program, National Risk Management Research Laboratory. EPA/600/R-99/017. Cincinnati, Ohio. 505 pgs. March 1999.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, and P. Brown. “Modeling of particulate removal in mixed media filters usingpower equation.” Water Environmental Federation, WEFTEC’01. Atlanta, GA, Oct. 2001.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, P.D. Johnson, R. Morquecho, and D. Williamson. “Treatability of stormwater heavy metals; or breaking the irreducible concentration barrier.” Watershed 2004, Water Environment Foundation. Dearborn, MI. July 11 – 14, 2004.

Pitt, R., S. Clark, P.D. Johnson, R. Morquecho, S. Gill, and M. Pratap. “High level treatment of stormwater heavy metals.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004.

Pitt. R. and S. Clark. “Stormwater treatment at critical source areas: The Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) and new upflow filters.” 76th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. Los Angeles, CA. Oct 11 – 15, 2003.

Pratap, M., S. Clark, R. Pitt, and P. Johnson. “WERF: Evaluation of upflow filtration for stormwater treatment at critical source areas.” 77th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exposition and Conference. New Orleans, LA. Oct 4 – 7, 2004.

Pratap, M., U. Khambhammettu, S. Clark, and R. Pitt. “Stormwater treatment using upflow filters.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005.

Robertson, B., R. Pitt, A. Ayyoubi, and R. Field. “Stormwater Treatment Using a Multi-Chambered Treatment Train.” (poster) Engineering Foundation Conference on: Stormwater NPDES Related Needs. Mt. Crested Butte, CO, August 1994.

Pitt, R., R. Ashley, J-D Baladès, and D. Butler. “Solids control at sources and at inputs to sewerage systems.” In: Solids in Sewers: Characteristics, Effects, and Controls of Sewer Solids and Associated Pollutants. (Edited by Richard Ashley). International Association on Water Quality (IAWQ). London. 2001.

Street Cleaning

Selbig, W.R. and Bannerman, R.T., 2007, Evaluation of street sweeping as a stormwater-quality management tool in three residential basins in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5, 103 p.

Horwatich, J.A., and Bannerman R.T., Data and Methods of a 2004-2007 Street Sweeping Study on an Urban Highway in Dane County, Wisconsin: Manuscript in preparation.

Selbig, W.R. and Bannerman, R.T., 2007, Evaluation of street sweeping as a stormwater-quality management tool in three residential basins in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5, 103 p.

Pitt, R.. R. Bannerman, and R. Sutherland. “The role of street cleaning in stormwater management.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004. (conference CD-ROM).

Waschbusch, R.J., 2003, Data and Methods of a 1999-2000 street sweeping study on an urban freeway in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-93, 41 p.

Pitt, R. “Some Benefits of Street Cleaning as Measured in a Recent Study.” American City and County Magazine, pp. 41-43. April 1980.

Hinkle, G., S. Cordes, J. Brown, E. Kaufmann, M. Manning, and R. Pitt. Research on Equipment Technology Utilized by Local Government: Street Cleaning. National Science Foundation. Grant No. APR 74-20419 A01. 340 pgs.April 1977.

Pitt, R. “The Potential of Street Cleaning in Reducing Nonpoint Pollution,” Urban Stormwater Management Workshop Proceedings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, August 1978, and Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban Storm Water Management, University of KY, July 1978.

Pitt, R. and G. Shawley. A Demonstration of Non-Point Source Pollution Management on Castro Valley Creek. Alameda County Flood Control and Water Conservation District and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Planning Division (Nationwide Urban Runoff Program). Washington, D.C. June 1982.

Pitt, R. and P. Bissonnette. Bellevue Urban Runoff Program Summary Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Planning Division. PB84 237213. Washington, D.C. 173 pgs. 1984.

Pitt, R. Characterizing and Controlling Urban Runoff through Street and Sewerage Cleaning. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Storm and Combined Sewer Program, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. EPA/600/S2-85/038. PB 85-186500. Cincinnati, Ohio. 467 pgs. June 1985.

Pitt, R. Demonstration of Nonpoint Pollution Abatement Through Improved Street Cleaning Practices, EPA-600/2-79-161, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. 270 pgs. 1979.

Pitt, R.. R. Bannerman, and R. Sutherland. “The role of street cleaning in stormwater management.” Water World and Environmental Resources Conference 2004, Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Salt Lake City, Utah. July 27 – August 1, 2004.

Pitt, R. Recommended Measures for the Control of Surface Runoff, Alameda County Flood  Control and Water Conservation District, September 1977.

Sutherland, R. and R. Pitt. Washoe County Urban Stormwater Management Program, Washoe Council of Governments, Reno, NV, August 1982.

Pollution Prevention Stormwater Controls

Owens, D.O., Jopke, P., Hall, D.W., Balousek, J., and Roa, A., 2000, Soil erosion from two small construction sites, Dane County, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS–109–00, 4 p.

Selbig, W.R., Jopke, P.L., Marshall, D.W., and Sorge, M.J., 2004, Hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic responses of Brewery Creek to construction of a residential subdivision, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1999–2002: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004–5156, 33 p.

Pitt, R. and M. Lalor. “The role of pollution prevention in stormwater management.” In: Models and Applications to Urban Water Systems, Vol. 9 (edited by W. James). CHI. Guelph, Ontario, 2001., pp. 1-20.

Clark, S., M.M. Lalor, and R. Pitt. “Wet-weather pollution from commonly-used building materials.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005. (conference CD-ROM).

Clark, S., M. Lalor, R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Investigation of wet-weather pollution contributions from building materials commonly used at industrial sites.” Published proceedings of the 9th Industrial Wastes Technical Conference. Austin, TX. Water Environment Foundation. April 2003.

Clark, S., M. Lalor, R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Investigation of wet-weather pollution contributions from building materials commonly used at industrial sites.” 9th Industrial Wastes Technical Conference. Austin, TX. Water Environment Foundation. April 16, 2003.

Clark, S., M.M. Lalor, and R. Pitt. “Wet-weather pollution from commonly-used building materials.” World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. ASCE/EWRI. Anchorage, Alaska. May 2005.

Clark, S., R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Wet-weather pollution prevention by product substitution.” (poster). Engineering Foundation and the American Society of Civil Engineers Conference on Information & Monitoring Needs for Evaluating the Mitigating Effects of BMPs. Snowmass, CO, August 2001.

Clark, S.E., M. Lalor, R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Wet-weather pollution prevention through materials substitution as part of industrial construction.” 8th Annual Industrial Wastes Technical and Regulatory Conference, Water Environment Federation. Atlantic City, New Jersey, August 11 - 14, 2002.

Clark, S.E., M.M. Lalor, R. Pitt, and R. Field. “Wet-weather pollution from commonly-used building materials.” 10th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Copenhagen, Denmark. August 21-26, 2005.

Pitt, R. and M. Lalor. “The role of pollution prevention in stormwater management.” Conference on stormwater and urban water systems modeling. Computational Hydraulics Institute. Toronto, Ontario. February 2000.

Detention Ponds

House, L.B., Waschbusch, R.J., Hughes, P.E., 1993, Water quality of an urban wet detention pond in Madison Wisconsin, 1987-88: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-172, 57 p.

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. DETPOND 4: A Water Quality Detention Pond Design Program; Model Documentation and Users Manual.Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, May 1989.

Moffa, P.E., H.M. Goegel, D.P. Davis, J.J. LaGorga,Earth Tech, Inc., and R. Pitt. Retrofitting Control Facilities for Wet-Weather Flow Treatment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/R-00/020. Washington, D.C. 198 pgs. January 2000.

Pitt, R. “Detention Pond Design for Water Quality Improvement.” National ASCE Hydraulic Conference. San Francisco, California. July 1993.

Pitt, R. “Stormwater control practices in cold climates.” Stormwater Runoff in Vermont: An Educational Workshop. Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center, UVM and the Vermont Law School. Burlington, VT, Jan. 2002.

Pitt, R. and J. Voorhees. “The Stormwater Quality Detention Pond Model (DETPOND).” 26th Annual Water Resources Conference. University of Minnesota. October 1993.

Urban Water System Design

Selbig, W.R., and Bannerman, R.T., 2008, A Comparison of Runoff Quantity and Quality from Two Small Basins Undergoing Implementation of Conventional and Low-Impact-Development (LID) Strategies: Cross Plains, Wisconsin, Water Years 1999-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5008, 66 p

Heaney, J.P., R. Pitt, and R. Field. Innovative Urban Wet-Weather Flow Management Systems. ISBN 1-56676-914-0. Technomics, Lancaster, PA. June 2000. 535 pages.

Heaney, J.P., L. Wright, D. Sample, R. Pitt, R. Field, and C-Y. Fan. “Innovative Wet-Weather Flow Collection/Control Systems for Newly Urbanizing Areas in the 21st Century.” Stormwater Management – Creating Sustainable Urban Water Resources for the 21st Century. (Edited by A.C. Rowney, P. Stahre, and L.A. Roesner). Engineering Foundation and ASCE. New York. 1998.

Heaney, J.P., L. Wright, D. Sample, R. Pitt, R. Field, and C-Y. Fan. “Innovative Stormwater Management as a Subsystem of Total Urban Water Management.” Stormwater Management – Creating Sustainable Urban Water Resources for the 21st Century. Engineering Foundation Conference. Malmo, Sweden. Sept. 1997.

Nix, S., R. Durrans, R. Pitt, and S. Burian. “Wet Weather Flows in Newly Urbanizing Areas: Initial Thoughts on Designs for the Future.” 1997 Georgia Water Resources Conference, The University of Georgia, Institute of Ecology. Athens, Georgia, March 1997.

Pitt, R. “Drainage Design for the Future.” CHI’s Stormwater & Water Quality Management Modeling Conference. Toronto, Ontario. Feb. 1998.

Pitt, R. “Stormwater management for highway projects.” Symposium on the Pollution of Water Sources from Road Run-Off. Tel Aviv University, Israel, Sponsored by The Committee for Public Transportation, the Faculty of Life Sciences, The Institute for Nature Conservation Research, and the Porter School of Environmental Studies at Tel Aviv University. March 19, 2001. 

Pitt, R., M. Lilburn, and S. Burian.“Storm Drainage Design for the Future – Summary of Current U.S EPA Research.” ASCE Technical Conference. Gulf Shores, AL. July 1997.

Pitt, R., R. Field, S. Burian, M. Lilburn, C-Y Fan, S.J. Nix, and S.R. Durrans.“Wet Weather Flow Designs for the Future.” ASCE Water Resources Conference. Chicago, ILJune 1998 (invited)

Pitt, R., S. Nix, R. Durrans, R. Field, , M. Lilburn and S. Burian. “Current and Future Drainage Design, Results of EPA-Funded Research.” 34th Annual American Water Resources Association Conference: Applications of Water Use Information. Point Clear, AL. November 1998.

Pitt, R., S. Nix, R. Durrans, R. Field, S. Burian. “Current Storm Drainage Design Practices.” UDM'98: Developments in Urban Drainage Modelling. London. Sept. 21-24, 1998.


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